以史为鉴链接:

目标:

NFS网络文件系统

一旦大家感到Samba服务程序的安插太劳苦了,那么您分享文件的主机都以Linux系统,那么推荐大家在顾客端陈设nfs服务来分享文件.nfs(网络文件系统)服务能够将远程Linux系统上的文件分享财富挂载到地面主机的目录上,进而使得地点主机客商端基于TCP/IP左券,疑似用地点主机上的财富这样读写远程Linux系统上的分享文件.

Win10提醒未有权限制行驶使互联网财富化解方法

  Tomcat+Nginx+Memcached

尝试情形

主机 操作系统 IP地址
NFS服务器 RHEL7.4 192.168.56.15
NFS客户端 CentOS7.4 192.168.56.5

1、张开调控面板;

澳门微尼斯人手机版,  Ubuntu 16.04 陆九个人测验通过

开始的一段时期计划这里本身把防火墙以及selinux都给关闭了.

1 安装 NFS-Server 使用 yum install nfs-utils rpcbind -y 命令.

[root@qdlinux ~]# yum install -y nfs-utils rpcbind
Loaded plugins: product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-manager
This system is not registered with an entitlement server. You can use subscription-manager to register.
dvd                                                                                       | 4.1 kB  00:00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.3.0-0.48.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: gssproxy >= 0.7.0-3 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc >= 0.2.4-0.7 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnfsidmap for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: quota for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent-2.0.so.5()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnfsidmap.so.0()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc.so.1()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64
---> Package rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-42.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package gssproxy.x86_64 0:0.7.0-4.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3(INI_CONFIG_1.1.0)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3(INI_CONFIG_1.2.0)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libref_array.so.1(REF_ARRAY_0.1.1)(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libverto-module-base for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libbasicobjects.so.0()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libcollection.so.2()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libini_config.so.3()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libref_array.so.1()(64bit) for package: gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64
---> Package libevent.x86_64 0:2.0.21-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package libnfsidmap.x86_64 0:0.25-17.el7 will be installed
---> Package libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.4-0.10.el7 will be installed
---> Package quota.x86_64 1:4.01-14.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: quota-nls = 1:4.01-14.el7 for package: 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: tcp_wrappers for package: 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libbasicobjects.x86_64 0:0.1.1-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libcollection.x86_64 0:0.6.2-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libini_config.x86_64 0:1.3.0-27.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libpath_utils.so.1(PATH_UTILS_0.2.1)(64bit) for package: libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libpath_utils.so.1()(64bit) for package: libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64
---> Package libref_array.x86_64 0:0.1.5-27.el7 will be installed
---> Package libverto-tevent.x86_64 0:0.2.5-4.el7 will be installed
---> Package quota-nls.noarch 1:4.01-14.el7 will be installed
---> Package tcp_wrappers.x86_64 0:7.6-77.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libpath_utils.x86_64 0:0.2.1-27.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=================================================================================================================
 Package                        Arch                  Version                           Repository          Size
=================================================================================================================
Installing:
 nfs-utils                      x86_64                1:1.3.0-0.48.el7                  dvd                398 k
 rpcbind                        x86_64                0.2.0-42.el7                      dvd                 59 k
Installing for dependencies:
 gssproxy                       x86_64                0.7.0-4.el7                       dvd                105 k
 libbasicobjects                x86_64                0.1.1-27.el7                      dvd                 25 k
 libcollection                  x86_64                0.6.2-27.el7                      dvd                 41 k
 libevent                       x86_64                2.0.21-4.el7                      dvd                214 k
 libini_config                  x86_64                1.3.0-27.el7                      dvd                 63 k
 libnfsidmap                    x86_64                0.25-17.el7                       dvd                 49 k
 libpath_utils                  x86_64                0.2.1-27.el7                      dvd                 27 k
 libref_array                   x86_64                0.1.5-27.el7                      dvd                 26 k
 libtirpc                       x86_64                0.2.4-0.10.el7                    dvd                 89 k
 libverto-tevent                x86_64                0.2.5-4.el7                       dvd                9.0 k
 quota                          x86_64                1:4.01-14.el7                     dvd                179 k
 quota-nls                      noarch                1:4.01-14.el7                     dvd                 91 k
 tcp_wrappers                   x86_64                7.6-77.el7                        dvd                 79 k

Transaction Summary
=================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages (+13 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 1.4 M
Installed size: 4.1 M
Downloading packages:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                            2.5 MB/s | 1.4 MB  00:00:00     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : libref_array-0.1.5-27.el7.x86_64                                                             1/15 
  Installing : libcollection-0.6.2-27.el7.x86_64                                                            2/15 
  Installing : libbasicobjects-0.1.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                          3/15 
  Installing : libtirpc-0.2.4-0.10.el7.x86_64                                                               4/15 
  Installing : rpcbind-0.2.0-42.el7.x86_64                                                                  5/15 
  Installing : 1:quota-nls-4.01-14.el7.noarch                                                               6/15 
  Installing : libpath_utils-0.2.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                            7/15 
  Installing : libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64                                                            8/15 
  Installing : tcp_wrappers-7.6-77.el7.x86_64                                                               9/15 
  Installing : 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64                                                                  10/15 
  Installing : libevent-2.0.21-4.el7.x86_64                                                                11/15 
  Installing : libnfsidmap-0.25-17.el7.x86_64                                                              12/15 
  Installing : libverto-tevent-0.2.5-4.el7.x86_64                                                          13/15 
  Installing : gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 14/15 
  Installing : 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64                                                           15/15 
  Verifying  : libverto-tevent-0.2.5-4.el7.x86_64                                                           1/15 
  Verifying  : rpcbind-0.2.0-42.el7.x86_64                                                                  2/15 
  Verifying  : 1:quota-4.01-14.el7.x86_64                                                                   3/15 
  Verifying  : libtirpc-0.2.4-0.10.el7.x86_64                                                               4/15 
  Verifying  : libnfsidmap-0.25-17.el7.x86_64                                                               5/15 
  Verifying  : libini_config-1.3.0-27.el7.x86_64                                                            6/15 
  Verifying  : libbasicobjects-0.1.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                          7/15 
  Verifying  : libevent-2.0.21-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 8/15 
  Verifying  : tcp_wrappers-7.6-77.el7.x86_64                                                               9/15 
  Verifying  : libpath_utils-0.2.1-27.el7.x86_64                                                           10/15 
  Verifying  : 1:quota-nls-4.01-14.el7.noarch                                                              11/15 
  Verifying  : gssproxy-0.7.0-4.el7.x86_64                                                                 12/15 
  Verifying  : libcollection-0.6.2-27.el7.x86_64                                                           13/15 
  Verifying  : libref_array-0.1.5-27.el7.x86_64                                                            14/15 
  Verifying  : 1:nfs-utils-1.3.0-0.48.el7.x86_64                                                           15/15 

Installed:
  nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.3.0-0.48.el7                         rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-42.el7                        

Dependency Installed:
  gssproxy.x86_64 0:0.7.0-4.el7        libbasicobjects.x86_64 0:0.1.1-27.el7 libcollection.x86_64 0:0.6.2-27.el7
  libevent.x86_64 0:2.0.21-4.el7       libini_config.x86_64 0:1.3.0-27.el7   libnfsidmap.x86_64 0:0.25-17.el7   
  libpath_utils.x86_64 0:0.2.1-27.el7  libref_array.x86_64 0:0.1.5-27.el7    libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.4-0.10.el7   
  libverto-tevent.x86_64 0:0.2.5-4.el7 quota.x86_64 1:4.01-14.el7            quota-nls.noarch 1:4.01-14.el7     
  tcp_wrappers.x86_64 0:7.6-77.el7    

Complete!

2 启动 NFS-Server

[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl enable rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start nfs-server.service 
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl enable nfs-server.service 
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nfs-server.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/nfs-server.service.

初步和启用NFS服务程序,由于在使用NFS服务举办文件分享从前,必要运用RPC(Remote
Procedure
Call,远程进程调用)
,服务将NFS服务器的IP地址和端口号等新闻发送给顾客端.因而,在运营NFS服务此前,还亟需顺带重启并运转rpcbind服务,这里将多少个劳务一并投入到开机运行项中.

3 能够动用 rpcbind -p 查看一下登记的新闻.

[root@qdlinux ~]# rpcinfo -p
   program vers proto   port  service
    100000    4   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    4   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
    100024    1   udp  43946  status
    100024    1   tcp  38188  status
    100005    1   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    1   tcp  20048  mountd
    100005    2   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    2   tcp  20048  mountd
    100005    3   udp  20048  mountd
    100005    3   tcp  20048  mountd
    100003    3   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   tcp   2049  nfs
    100227    3   tcp   2049  nfs_acl
    100003    3   udp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   udp   2049  nfs
    100227    3   udp   2049  nfs_acl
    100021    1   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    3   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    4   udp  35724  nlockmgr
    100021    1   tcp  44097  nlockmgr
    100021    3   tcp  44097  nlockmgr
    100021    4   tcp  44097  nlockmgr

4 查看系统相关进程消息

[root@qdlinux ~]# ps -ef | egrep "rpc|nfs"
rpc        1959      1  0 16:37 ?        00:00:00 /sbin/rpcbind -w
rpcuser    2039      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.statd
root       2047      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [rpciod]
root       2057      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.mountd
root       2058      1  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.idmapd
root       2068      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd4_callbacks]
root       2074      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2075      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2076      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2077      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2078      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2079      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2080      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2081      2  0 16:38 ?        00:00:00 [nfsd]
root       2135   1633  0 16:52 pts/0    00:00:00 grep -E --color=auto rpc|nfs

5 NFS服务端配置分享目录

参数 作用
ro 只读
rw 读写
root_squash 当NFS客户端以root管理员访问时,映射为NFS服务器的匿名用户
no_root_squash 当NFS客户端以root管理员访问时,映射为NFS服务器的root管理员
all_squash 无论NFS客户端使用什么账户访问,均映射为NFS服务器的匿名用户
sync 同时将数据写入到内存与硬盘中,保证不丢失数据
async 优先将数据保存到内存,然后再写入到硬盘,这样效率更高,但可能会丢失数据
[root@qdlinux ~]# vim /etc/exports
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*(rw,sync,all_squash)

//创建需要共享的目录
[root@qdlinux ~]# mkdir /nfsfile

[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl restart nfs-server.service 
[root@qdlinux ~]# cat /var/lib/nfs/etab 
/nfsfile    192.168.56.*(rw,sync,wdelay,hide,nocrossmnt,secure,root_squash,all_squash,no_subtree_check,secure_locks,acl,no_pnfs,anonuid=65534,anongid=65534,sec=sys,secure,root_squash,all_squash)

//查看一下id=65534是哪一个用户
[root@qdlinux ~]# grep "65534" /etc/passwd
nfsnobody:x:65534:65534:Anonymous NFS User:/var/lib/nfs:/sbin/nologin

//修改一下`/nfsfile`的权限,这里也可以把目录所属主和所属组改为nfsnobody或者直接给成777权限
[root@qdlinux ~]# chmod -Rf nfsnobody:nfsnobody /nfsfile/

//在目录下写入一个文件用于测试
[root@qdlinux ~]# echo "welecome to qdlinux" > /nfsfile/readme
[root@qdlinux ~]# ll  /nfsfile/
total 4
-rw-r--rwx 1 root root 20 Aug 16 17:30 readme
[root@qdlinux ~]# 

NFS顾客端的布局步骤极度简约,先使用 showmount
命令查询NFS服务器的长距离分享新闻,其出口格式为”分享的目录名称
允许利用客商端地址”.

参数 作用
-e 显示NFS服务器的共享李彪
-a 显示本机挂载的文件资源的情况
-v 显示版本号
[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*

6 顾客端测验

[root@qdlinux ~]# yum install nfs-utils rpcbind -y
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl start rpcbind
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl is-enabled rpcbind
enabled
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl is-active rpcbind
active

//查询一下服务是否运行
[root@qdlinux ~]# systemctl status rpcbind
● rpcbind.service - RPC bind service
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/rpcbind.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2018-08-16 14:05:32 CST; 3h 48min ago
 Main PID: 568 (rpcbind)
    Tasks: 1
   CGroup: /system.slice/rpcbind.service
           └─568 /sbin/rpcbind -w

Aug 16 14:05:27 qdlinux.com systemd[1]: Starting RPC bind service...
Aug 16 14:05:32 qdlinux.com systemd[1]: Started RPC bind service.

//在客户端使用`showmount -e`命令查询一下
[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15 NFS服务器共享列表
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/nfsfile 192.168.56.*

7 NFS客商端挂载

在NFS客商端创制二个挂在目录,使用mount一声令下加-t参数,钦命要挂在的文件系统的类型,并在命令前面写上服务器的IP地址、服务器上的分享目录以及要挂载到本地系统(客商端)的目录.

[root@qdlinux /]# mkdir /data
[root@qdlinux /]# mount -t nfs 192.168.56.15:/nfsfile /data

//现在已经挂载成功了,可以看到在NFS服务器上创建的文件了.

一经期待NFS文件分享服务能直接有效,供给将其写入到 fstab 文件中.

[root@qdlinux data]# vim /etc/fstab
192.168.56.15:/nfsfile                    /data                   nfs     defaults        0 0

1 如果NFS服务器宕机,强制卸载umount -lf /data
2 [root@qdlinux data]# umount /data
  umount.nfs4: /data: device is busy
  出现这种情况时,退出挂载目录然后在卸载

8 autofs自动挂载服务

autofs服务程序是一种Linux系统守护过程,当检查评定到客户计划去拜见三个一直不挂载的文件系统时,将机关挂载该文件系统,大家将挂载音讯写入/etc/fstab文本后,系统在历次开机时都自动将其挂载,而autofs自动挂载服务是客商须求运用该文件系统时才会去动态挂载,进而节省了互联网能源和服务器的硬件财富.

[root@qdlinux /]# yum install autofs -y

一贯挂载格局,本地的挂载点是相对路线

[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.master.d/nfs.autofs
/-      /etc/auto.nfs_direct
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.nfs_direct 
/data   -rw,sync,soft   192.168.56.15:/nfsfile

//mount查看一下
/etc/auto.nfs_direct on /data type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=18,pgrp=6217,timeout=300,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=79495)

直接挂载格局

[root@qdlinux ~]# mkdir -p /public/share
[root@qdlinux ~]# chown -Rf nfsnobody:nfsnobody /public/share
[root@qdlinux ~]# vim /etc/exports
/public/share 192.168.56.*(rw,sync,all_squash)
//重新启动nfs-server

[root@qdlinux ~]# showmount -e 192.168.56.15
Export list for 192.168.56.15:
/public/share 192.168.56.*
/nfsfile      192.168.56.*

[root@qdlinux /]# mkdir /test
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/auto.master.d/share.autofs
/test  /etc/share.nfs_share
[root@qdlinux /]# vim /etc/share.nfs_share
*       -rw,sync,soft   192.168.56.15:/public/&
//重新启动autofs服务

前几日可以访谈了,客户端当你切换成/test/share时可以创设文件服务端实时同步.

2、在享有调整面板项中找到证据管理器;

  动静分类、负载均衡、集群、Javolution体系化、高质量、高可用

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注